"The Immigrant Labor Force After 1860" from VOA

THE MAKING OF A NATION – a program in Special English by the Voice of America.

In our last program, we told the story of the Statue of Liberty, given to the United States by the people of France. The "Lady of Liberty" holds a bright torch high over the harbor of New York City. Her torch of freedom was a welcome signal to millions of immigrants arriving to begin a new life in America.

American life was changing. And it was changing quickly. Before 1860, the United States had an agricultural economy. After 1860, the country began to change from an agricultural to an industrial economy.

In 1860, American shops and factories produced less than 2,000 million dollars' worth of goods. Thirty years later, in 1890, American factories produced ten thousand million dollars' worth. By then, more than five million persons were working in factories and mines. Another three million had jobs in the building industries and transportation.

Year after year, production continued to increase. And the size of the industrial labor force continued to grow.

A great many of the new industrial workers came from American farms. Farm work was hard, and the pay was low. Young men left the family farms as soon as they could. They went to towns and cities to look for an easier and better way of life. Many of them found it in the factories. A young man who worked hard and learned new skills could rise quickly to better and better jobs.

This was not only true for farmers, but also for immigrants who came to the United States from foreign countries. They came from many different lands and for many different reasons. But all came with the same hope for a better life in a new world.

In the 1850s, America's industrial revolution was just beginning. Factories needed skilled workers -- men who knew how to do all the necessary jobs. Factory owners offered high pay to workers who had these skills.

British workers had them. Many had spent years in British factories. Pay was poor in Britain, and these skilled workers could get much more money in America. So, many of them came. Hundreds of thousands. Some factories -- even some industries -- seemed completely British.

Cloth factories in Fall River, Massachusetts, were filled with young men from Lancashire, England. Most of the workers in the shipyards of San Francisco were from Scotland. Many of the coal miners in America were men from the British mines in Wales.

Many were farmers who came to America because they could get land for nothing. They could build new farms for themselves in the rich land of the American west.

One of the best-liked songs in Britain then was a song about the better life in America. Its name: "To The West. " Its words helped many men decide to Make the move to America.

"To The west, to the west, to the land of the free

where mighty Missouri rolls down to the sea;

where a man is a man if he's willing to toil.

And the poorest may harvest the fruits of the soil.

Where the young may exult and the aged may rest,

away, far away, to the land of the west."

To another group of immigrants, America was the last hope. Ireland in the 1840s suffered one crop failure after another. Hungry men had to leave. In 1850 alone, more than one hundred seventeen thousand people came to the United States from Ireland. Most had no money and little education. To those men and women, America was a magic name.

Throughout Europe, when times were hard, people talked of going to America. In some countries, organizations were formed to help people emigrate to the United States. A Polish farmer wrote to such an organization in Warsaw:

"I want to go to America. But I have no money. I have nothing but the ten fingers of my hands, a wife, and nine children. I have no work at all, although I am strong and healthy and only forty-five years old. I have been to many towns and cities in Poland, wherever I could go. Nowhere could I earn much money. I wish to work. But what can I do. I will not steal, and I have no work. So, I beg you to accept me for a journey to America."

As the years passed, fewer people were moving to America for a better job. Most were coming now for any job at all. Work was hard to find in any of the cities in Europe.

A British lawmaker told parliament in 1870 that Englishmen were leaving their country, not because they wanted to, but because they had to. They could not find work at home. He said that even as he spoke, hundreds were dying of hunger in London and other British cities. They were victims of the new revolution in agriculture and industry.

Small family farms were disappearing. In their places rose large modern farms that could produce much more. New machines took the place of men. And millions of farmers had to look for other work. Some found it in the factories. Industry was growing quickly...but not quickly enough to give jobs to all the farmers out of work.

In the next ten years, millions of people made the move from Britain, Germany, and the Scandinavian countries. But then, as industry in those countries grew larger, and more jobs opened, the flood of immigration began to slow.

The immigrants now were coming from southern and eastern Europe. Anti-Jewish feeling swept Russia and Poland. Violence against Jews caused many of them to move to America.

In the late 1880s, cholera spread through much of southern Italy. Fear of the disease led many families to leave for the United States.

Others left when their governments began building up strong armies. Young men who did not want to be soldiers often escaped by moving to America. Big armies were costly, and many people left because they did not want to pay the high taxes.

Whatever the reason, people continued to immigrate to the United States.

These new immigrants were not like those who came earlier. These new immigrants had no skills. Most were unable to read or write.

Factory owners found that these eastern and southern Europeans were hard workers. They did not protest because the work was hard and the pay was low. They did not demand better working conditions. They did not join unions or strike.

Factory owners began to replace higher-paid American and British workers with the new immigrants. Business leaders wanted more of the new workers. They urged the immigrants to write letters to their friends and relatives in the old country. "Tell them to come to America, that there are plenty of jobs."

Letters from America brought many more immigrants. The big steamship companies also helped industry to get more of the new workers. They paid thousands of agents throughout Europe to sell tickets for the trip to America. Their efforts meant that steamships bringing grain to Europe could return to America filled with immigrants.

They came by the hundreds of thousands. People of all religions, from all across Europe. Many remained in New York and other eastern cities. But many others moved westward. They took jobs in the steel factories of Pennsylvania and the coal mines of West Virginia. They worked in the lumber camps of Michigan and in the stockyards and meat-packing plants of Chicago.

Within a few years, foreign-born workers held most of the unskilled jobs in many American industries. American workers began to protest. They demanded an end to the flood of immigration.

That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

You have been listening to THE MAKING OF A NATION, a program in Special English. Your narrators were Leo Scully and Maurice Joyce. Our program was written by Frank Beardsley.


1. By the 1890s, most of the unskilled jobs in the United States were held by ___________________ .
a: sons and daughters of farmers
b: foreign-born workers
c: eastern European workers
d: British and Welsh workers

2. Factory owners preferred to hire eastern and southern Europeans because these workers _________________________ .
a: had more skills than other immigrant groups
b: were physically stronger than others
c: could always bring more workers by writing letters
d: were less likely to protest low pay or poor working conditions

3. A large immigration from southern Italy occurred in the late 1880s because of ___________________ .
a: famine
b: an epidemic
c: political turmoil
d: religious persecution

4. Immigration to the United States slowed down when __________________ .
a: industries in the home countries grew and more jobs opened
b: American factories and mines had no more job openings
c: big cities in America such as New York became too crowded
d: steamships stopped offering affordable passage to the United States

5. Poland and other countries formed organizations to ____________________ .
a: discourage people from emigrating to the United States
b: help people trying to leave the United States
c: help people emigrate to the United States
d: help American immigrants

6. In 1850, many immigrants came to the US from Ireland because ____________________ .
a: they wanted better jobs
b: they wanted a good education
c: Ireland suffered crop failures
d: they wanted to farm free land offered in the American west

7. Young men left family farms because _______________________ .
a: farm work was too hard
b: the pay from farm work was low
c: factories offered better jobs
d: all of the above

8. By 1890, more than five million people were working in _________________ .
a: factories and mines
b: factories and retail outlets
c: retail outlets and mines
d: mines and transportation

9. One of the first sights an immigrant would see in New York Harbor in the 1890s was ____________________ .
a: an American factory with a lot of smoke
b: The Statue of Liberty
c: The Empire State Building
d: Golden Gate Bridge

10. Before 1860, the United States had ____________________________ .
a: an industrial economy
b: an agricultural economy
c: a fast growing economy
d: an economy dominated by large corporations



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